Keep Minnesotans Right Side Up.


  1. Abt Associates, Inc. and Center for Health and Long Term Care Research, The Effect of Reducing Falls on Long Term Care Expenses, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004.
  2. American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention, Guideline for the Prevention of Falls in Older Persons, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2001, 49: 665-672.
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  3. Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Dawson-Hughes, B.,Willett, W.C., et al. Effect of vitamin d on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 2004, 291:1999-2006.
  4. Broe, K.E., Chen, T.C., Weinberg, J., et al. A higher dose of vitamin d reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: a randomize, multiple-dose study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 2007, 55:234-239.
  5. Chang, J.T., Morton, S.C., Rubenstein, L.Z., et al. Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. British Medical Journal, 2004, 328: 1-7.
  6. Minnesota Injury Data Access System 
  7. Rubenstein, L., Josephson, K. The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clinical Geriatric Medicine, 2002, 18: 141-158.
  8. Rubenstein, L., Powers, C., MacLean, C., RAND Quality Indicators for the Management and Prevention of Falls and Mobility Problems in Vulnerable Elders 2001, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2001, 135: 686-693.
  9. Tinetti, M.  Preventing falls in elderly persons. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, 348: 42-49.
  10. Tinetti, M., Baker, D., McAvay, G., Claus, E., Garrett, P., Gottschalk, M., Koch, M., Trainor, K.,  Horwitz, R. I. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1994, 331(13), 821-869.
  11. Tinetti, M., Powell, L. Fear of falling and low self-efficacy: a case of dependence in elderly persons. Journal of Gerontology, 1993, 48: 35-38.
  12. Tinetti, M., Speechley, M., Ginter, S. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine, 1988, 319 (26):1701-7.
  13. Wenger N, Solomon D, Roth C, et al. The quality of medical care provided to vulnerable community -dwelling older patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003: 139: 740-747.
  14. WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System)
  15. World Health Organization reports on falls prevention in older age. Available: